Tourism and crime

A personal selection of tourist destinations

Lubricants in South Africa

Ing. Petr Vavruch

Presented at the 10th International Conference Lubrication Engineering in Theory and Practice in Prague on 16 October 2007. Written in June 2007.

Jižní Afrika má bohaté přírodní bohatství, téměř dokonalou infrastrukturu, solidní zemědělství a důlní průmysl a prvotřídní výrobní podniky. Hospodářství roste, měna se ustálila a míra inflace byla dlouhou dobu nízká. Problém je, že země je zároveň v mnoha směrech vyspělá a zároveň značná část obyvatelstva žije v podmínkách rozvojové země. Je zde vysoká nezaměstnanost, zoufalá chudoba, AIDS, tuberkulóza, na severovýchodě malárie, značná korupce, zločinnost, zcela nedostatečná veřejná doprava a vážné problémy ve zdravotnictví a školství. Probíhá transformace, která má za účel vyrovnání rozdílů mezi bělochy a černochy - pozitivní diskriminace a plánované přerozdělení zemědělské půdy jsou její aspekty které nejsou mnohým lidem příjemné. Politická situace je v současné době nejistá, ale ne nebezpečná a zase se uklidní. Petrolejářský průmysl má v zemi 125-letou tradici. Jsou zde rafinerie, vyrábějí se tu základní oleje i většina druhů maziv. Řadu mezinárodních a místních firem je pro další zahraniční firmy obtížné rozšířit. Ceny výrobků jsou relativně nízké, konkurence je nelítostná a velkou rozlohu země není snadné pokrýt.

Many international as well as local oil companies and suppliers operate in South Africa but entering the market is difficult due to relatively low prices, fierce competition and big distances between centres. The oil industry is well established with its fuel refineries, base oil production, blend plants, marketing, and distribution. South Africa has an excellent infrastructure, rich natural resources, developed tourism, agriculture, mining and industry. The economy is growing, the currency has found a relatively stable level and the inflation is bearable. However, the country's mixture of a first world economy and the third world conditions is difficult to manage. The transformation process aimed at empowering the black majority is peaceful, although affirmative action and land redistribution worries some people. The political situation might be volatile in the near future but is not dangerous and will stabilize later again.

1. South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a large country, more than 1.2 million square km, almost 4 times the area of Poland. But, at 44 million, it has only 18% more people than Poland - if we ignore 3 million illegal immigrants from Zimbabwe. Only those few Zimbabweans who could afford it bought themselves fraudulent identity documents and became South Africans. Whites comprise about 9% of the population.

Geographically, South Africa is a vast interior plateau rimmed by rugged hills and narrow coastal plains. The view from the edge of the plateau above the Kruger National Park is breathtaking (see Panorama Route in the attachment). In the centre, the plateau is quite high, e.g. Johannesburg is 1700 m above the sea level.

2. Politics
South African society suffers from the third world conditions that affect a major portion of the population. High unemployment, poverty (desperation leads to alcohol and drug abuse), lack of social security, poor public transport, health system overextended by TB, AIDS (2 million people have died of AIDS-related diseases so far) and malaria, widespread corruption and completely unacceptable crime levels are problems that are difficult to solve. President Thabo Mbeki and his government were in denial about Zimbabwe, AIDS and crime, but have been gradually forced to accept the serious situation first concerning AIDS and then crime. The provision of quality education is a major challenge and 11 official languages do not make the task easier.

Since the 1994 elections, the country has experienced a peaceful transformation process aimed at empowering the black majority of the population. This includes affirmative action and plans for more land redistribution - making life difficult for some white people. The ruling party, the ANC, has a firm grip on the government on the national and provincial levels. Among cities, only Cape Town is ruled by the opposition.

In the interior, you can drive (on the left like in England) from Cape Town to Johannesburg (1400 km) at the maximum speed limit of 120 km/h and not see a human dwelling for hours. On the other hand, cities are overcrowded. Cape Town has twice as many people as before the end of apartheid as the ANC brings in rural people in an effort to win the elections. These people are generally unemployed and live in squatter camps. The centre of Johannesburg and the residential suburbs of Berea, Yeoville and Hillbrow (which were perfectly safe when PV lived there in 1972-5) have been taken over by poor blacks and became no-go areas.

The presidential term is nearing its end and this causes major friction within the ruling tripartite alliance of the ANC, the South African Communist Party and the trade union COSATU. The best man for the job, the finance minister Trevor Manuel, is disqualified because he is not black. The rank and file of the ANC is quite capable of selecting the worst possible candidate for the job but he might also be disqualified! His name is Jacob Zuma, he is black but his problem is his tribal origin: he is a Zulu and not a Xhosa.

On the local level, the inexperience and greed of the new officials often make service delivery non-existent.

In my presentation, I will describe some difficulties that stem from the human potential in the country.

3. Economy
South Africa's economic activity is concentrated in her cities along the coast and in the Gauteng province which is in the northern part of the inland plateau around Johannesburg (see the map on the last page).

The country has an excellent infrastructure: good roads, railways, ports, pipelines, airports, telephones, water supply and electricity; a functioning justice system, banks and other financial institutions, a 120-year old Johannesburg Stock Exchange that ranks among the 10 largest in the world, universities; it has rich natural resources including good quality coal, iron ore, gold and uranium, platinum (world's largest producer), salt, chromium, antimony, manganese, nickel, phosphates, tin, copper, vanadium and diamonds; developed agriculture (but only 12% of the country is arable and it suffers from draught); world class plants producing steel and stainless steel, wire ropes and cables, aluminium, paper, glass, fertilizers, chemicals, explosives for the mines, textiles, cane sugar, foodstuff and beverages, cars (mainly German and Japanese models), road working machines, heavy weapons, tools, cement and other building and construction materials.

South Africa is a middle-income, emerging market. Its growth at almost 5% has not been strong enough to lower South Africa's high unemployment rate of (perhaps) 25%. Industrial production is increasing at 7% but it is not labour-intensive. Construction industry, which represents only 3% of the GDP, is increasing by 21% thus creating some opportunities for the petroleum industry in an otherwise stagnant lubricants market.

The impressive growth in construction is proof that the public sector's huge infrastructure spending programme is finally getting off the ground. Some of the projects are located in coastal regions, e.g. near Port Elizabeth and a new steel smelter plant in Richards Bay. These are other opportunities for suppliers.

The limiting factor for these projects might be electricity. The state utility Eskom (that supplies about 60% of the electric power in Africa) operates several coal-fired power stations, most of them 6x600 MW, hydro-electric power stations (Cahora Bassa dam in Mozambique is connected to South Africa by DC lines), and the French-built 2x921 MW Koeberg nuclear power station, currently lubricated by Shell, north of Cape Town. Eskom's total capacity is about 40 000 megawatts.

After 1994, the new government was informed that the electricity capacity exceeded demand. Now it has been discovered that power stations cannot be built overnight. Western Cape is critical. One of Koeberg's two units was down for several months because a loose bolt was left inside the generator during maintenance but otherwise the power station is quite reliable. The coal-fired power stations are 1500 km away (east of Johannesburg) and the power lines to the Cape cannot cope without Koeberg.

South Africa will have to build power stations and this is another example of new potential for lubricants. By 2016, there will be a second conventional nuclear power plant generating 4 000 MW. In the meantime, the government has been spending (wasting?) a lot of money on planning and designing 165 MW pebble bed nuclear station(s). A reactor of that size has never been built anywhere else - and possibly for a good reason.

South African economic policy is fiscally conservative focusing on capping inflation and liberalizing trade as the means to increase job growth and household income. This blatantly capitalist approach is challenged by COSATU and the Communist Party. They have a point: the economic situation of a considerable portion of the population is so terrible that free trade has no chance of solving it any time soon.

The economic indicators of the country are similar to those of Poland. The Gross National Product is more than 575 billion dollars when based on the purchasing power parity and 200 billion dollars according to the exchange rate. This shows how the South African rand (ZAR) is undervalued at the exchange rate around 9.50 ZAR per Euro. At 3 Kč per ZAR, the prices in South Africa are generally similar to those in the Czech Republic. Inflation is bearable at the current 7% but it was much lower until recently.

A recently concluded EU-RSA trade agreement will remove 90% of all trade barriers over the next decade and Europe already accounts for almost half of South Africa's total foreign trade. The main trading partners are Germany, USA, China, Japan, UK, France, Italy and Benelux. The Czech Republic is about 40th. In the last 15 years, there has been a considerable shift in exports from products of mining to manufactured products. South Africa imports machinery and equipment, cars and trucks, chemicals, petroleum products and crude oil, scientific instruments, electronics, textiles, foodstuffs and beverages (e.g. Pilsner Urquell), etc.

A customs union exists between RSA, Namibia, Botswana, Lesotho and Swaziland. These countries are also in the Rand Monetary Area, except Botswana who has her own currency (1 pula = 1.13 ZAR).

4. Petroleum industry
South Africa is the largest petroleum refiner in Africa. Crude oil, imported mainly from Iran and the Middle East, is processed in four refineries: Engen (built by Mobil in 1954) and Shell/BP in Durban, Caltex in Cape Town, and Sasol/Total in Sasolburg (inland south of Johannesburg, supplied by a pipeline from the coast). Liquid fuels are also manufactured inland from coal in Sasol's plants (using a modified method first developed by Germans in Bohemia during the war) and from natural gas by Mossgas in Mossel Bay.

There are two base oil plants: SAMCO (Shell/BP, capacity 155 000 metric tons p.a.) and Mobil-built SAFOR (Engen/Caltex/Total, slightly smaller). Both produce good quality Group I paraffinic base oils. Small quantities of Group I, as well as Group II and III base oils are imported from Europe and Asia. Nynas (and others) import naphthenic base oils. Transport costs from North America are higher than from Europe.

Although the South African chemical industry is generally well developed, almost all additives for lubricants are imported. Lubrizol, in Durban, is the only one blending a few additives locally. Afton Chemical is represented by Protea Speciality Chemicals in Durban, Infineum by Multisol in Cape Town, Oronite by African Petroleum Additives & Chemicals, RohMax by Lucas Lee & Associates, and Great Lakes by Chemfit. Ciba Specialty Chemicals has a local affiliate in Gauteng handling a wide variety of products.

There are several blend plants and grease plants, some of them state-of-the-art, e.g. Shell/BP and Engen blend plants and Total's grease plant. The total capacity of the plants exceeds local demand and some finished lubricants are exported to the rest of sub-Saharan Africa. Attempts to rationalise plants failed.

Some used oil is collected by the Rose Foundation created by the oil industry but very little of it is re-refined due to the lack of government subsidies. Most of it is burned, e.g. in cement kilns.

Synthetic lubricants are generally too expensive and are used only where the customers have no other option because they need to solve a specific problem or because an OEM insists on these grades during a guarantee period. Thus they hold only less than 0.5% of the market. Nevertheless, a local company, Habot, has been supplying a full range of PAO and ester based synthetics, many of them locally produced. Major companies also supply synthetic and semi-synthetic lubricants. Although there is no legislation in place, some companies who want to obtain the ISO 14001 approval inquire about environmentally friendly lubes.

The combination of first-world and third-world economies is reflected in the oil industry where major companies, BP with Castrol, Engen, Shell, Chevron (still operating as Caltex), Total and Fuchs, supply world-class lubricants to customers who often look for cheaper alternatives. The gap is filled by a number of 'small independent blenders' (SIB, they used to be called 'jobbers'), particularly in the main industrial areas of Gauteng (Johannesburg, Pretoria, Vanderbijlpark) and Durban. There are more than 20 small blenders and perhaps 100 small marketers, a few of them representing overseas suppliers, e.g. Agip. They have carved out a considerable portion of the market (see the table on the next page) and are trying to form an association related to ILMA. In lubricants, Sasol's volumes are still small; it tried to merge with Engen, which controls more than 1000 petrol stations, but the merger was stopped by the Competition Board.

Prices of lubricants, even the top grades, are suppressed. The industry is highly competitive and is not subject to government controls that apply to automotive fuels. A half a litre of locally blended SAE 15W-40 API SL/CF engine oil costs at a petrol station 1.80 Euro. In 210 litre drums, the same oil costs 1.75 Euro per litre. An API CI-4 Plus diesel engine oil costs 1.85 Euro per litre in 210 litre drums. One litre of premium quality zinc anti-wear hydraulic fluid (VI 95 minimum) costs 1.40 Euro per litre in drums and an EP industrial gear oil 1.50 Euro. The prices in drums are list prices but most industrial customers pay much less by virtue of substantial discounts. Tough pricing makes it a challenge for newcomers. A number of overseas companies came after the sanctions against South Africa were lifted - and failed. Mobil was an exception.

In 1881, Johann Gottlieb Schade became the sole agent of Vacuum Oil (later Mobil) - the first oil company represented in South Africa. It had 100% of the market. Since then, it was losing market share and trying to compensate it by swallowing small companies. In the 1980s, Mobil Corporation came under increasing pressure from activists and, in 1989, it sold, quite cheaply, its South African subsidiary to a local mining group Gencor. Soon after that Engen was created (Engen = Energy Gencor). In terms of the sale, Engen was not allowed to claim similarity to Mobil products but this was ignored in the international marine trade.

Mobil was not allowed to return for several years. After the fall of apartheid, Mobil came back on its own and reclaimed its share in the international marine business. Engen's modern blend plant in Durban started blending Mobil-branded products again. Mobil aggressively tried to market its synthetics and other lubes to fleets and other industries. It had no access to petrol stations and thus gained only about 3% of the market.

Engen was in the meantime purchased by the Malaysian national oil company Petronas. After Mobil's return, Engen blended and marketed Exxon marine lubricants (PV's major involvement). When Exxon and Mobil merged, ExxonMobil closed its subsidiary and Engen was contracted to market Mobil lubricants. Engen is now 80% owned by Petronas and 20% by a black group. All oil companies are involved in the Black Economic Empowerment. This has created a number of super-rich blacks, many of them top ANC members. Two of them, Tokyo Sexwale and Cyril Ramaphosa, are now potential presidential candidates.

Among the major oil companies, competition has intensified in recent years. Some companies use Group II and III base stocks to replace synthetics. BP/Castrol is active in franchise, mining and OEMs, Engen is trying to exploit the full potential of the Mobil brand, Shell is aggressive in automotive and mining sectors, Caltex and Total in agriculture and Fuchs in fleets and agriculture. The table shows estimated market shares:

BP/Castrol 22% market share
Engen/Mobil 16%
Shell 16%
Caltex 10%
Total 6%
Fuchs 3%
SIB including Agip, Sasol, Habot and others 27%

The total lubricants market is not accurately known because of the SIB factor. Without SIB, it is quite accurately measured at 287 Ml, thus the total could be about 400 Ml. The market is stagnant. Car population growth is off-set by extended oil drain intervals. The biggest market sectors are estimated as follows:

Industrial and civil off-highway: 160 000 kl (out of 400 000 kl total)
Mining 43%
General manufacturing 32%
Steel 6%
Railways 4.5%
Construction 4%
Pulp and paper 2.5%
Aluminium 2%
Cement 2%
Energy 1.5%
Packaging including glass 1.5%
Sugar 1%

Passenger car lubes market: 130 000 kl (out of 400 000 kl total)
Petrol stations 30%
Franchise 19%
Workshops 13%
Resellers 12%
Automotive spares shops 9%
Private labels 8%
Taxis 5%
Initial fills 4%

Commercial vehicle lubes market: 80 000 kl (out of 400 000 kl total)
Agriculture 51%
Fleets 23%
Owner operators 19%
Government 5%
Initial fills 2%

Tourism and crime
As the country is large, its climate varies from subtropical in Durban to Mediterranean in Cape Town. The winters are cold and very dry on the plateau and very wet in Cape Town. Generally, however, "It is sunny in South Africa!" The Atlantic Ocean is cold in Cape Town and along the west coast. The Indian Ocean is warmer and one can swim in Durban the whole year long. In summer (December to February), some of the warm water gets into the False Bay south of Cape Town.

For a tourist, South Africa is a fascinating country with magnificent scenery and beaches, great wildlife, excellent food and wines, a lot of sunshine, dramatic history and many lovely people. But beware of people who pretend to be too friendly! With almost 50% of the country's population living below the poverty line, petty theft is a common problem and violent robbery an occasional one. The cruelty of some of the attacks is difficult to comprehend. However, the majority of crimes happens in areas where tourists never go.

Dangerous situations can be avoided by common sense. Don't leave your things lying on the beach or on the back seat of your car. If you can, try not to look like a tourist, keep the camera under cover until you need it and stay away from dark urban areas at night. Just like in Prague, be aware who is around you all the time. Don't use ATMs at night and firmly refuse 'help' from anyone. If it happens, don't continue and press cancel immediately; you can draw money later or elsewhere! Police emergency telephone number is 10111.

AIDS is pandemic in much of the country so this is not a good destination if you're single and looking for 'companionship'. Victims of AIDS often also have TB. Drug-resistant TB strains are becoming a problem. Malaria exists in the north-east, e.g. in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and Swaziland, north of Pretoria and Durban. Take the recommended pills if you're planning to travel there other than between June and August (South African winter). It is a good idea to visit KNP in winter because the lack of foliage makes it easier to spot animals hiding behind the bushes. Bilharzia is another hazard in the northern and eastern parts: along the coast down to north of East London. It is a minuscule parasite that lives in stagnant fresh water, so don't bathe in lakes or slow moving rivers. Sterilize any wild water you're going to drink. If you accidentally get wet, dry off as soon as you can, and change clothes as well. Tap water is clean and good to drink everywhere.

Cuisine for the whites means large portions of well-prepared meat or fish, often fried or barbecued (called 'braai' in South Africa). Seafood is fresh, varied and succulent and can be combined with the superb local white wine. Beef steaks, mutton, pork, ostrich, kudu (antelope) and spicy sausages go well with high quality beers or red wines. A variety of dried meat - 'biltong' - is a popular snack. Indian restaurants serve very 'hot' curry dishes and both Italian and Portuguese restaurants are excellent. In the prime tourist area of the V&A Waterfront in Cape Town, there are 48 different restaurants. Tip 10% unless you are not happy with the service. You can pay with MasterCard or Visa cards, sometimes also with American Express or Diners Club.

Car hire prices are reasonable, particularly when part of a package. The roads are good and there are many scenic drives and worthwhile places to go. Avoid Johannesburg city centre and keep all doors locked in all cities. Even in Durban, when you stop at night at a red light and feel uneasy, rather check quickly left and right and drive on. Interestingly, in South Africa, traffic lights are called 'robots'. National roads have two lanes with emergency lanes on the side which slow vehicles use to let faster traffic pass. The overtaking car then flashes hazard warning lights to thank them. Drunken driving is illegal but often tolerated and 30 people die on the roads every day. South Africans are aggressive on the road, worst of all the minibus (Toyota Hilux) taxi drivers. Half of the drivers' licences in the RSA have been obtained fraudulently without passing the necessary tests. The traffic police focuses only on speeding drivers who sometimes get away with a bribe.

Come to South Africa as a tourist, you will almost certainly find the country to be safe. But do not come to collect wildlife. If you do, you will be caught. If you are caught and you are not rich enough to be able to pay the enormous fines, you will go to prison. If you go to prison, you will get AIDS.

A personal selection of tourist destinations
1. The Kruger National Park (KNP) measures two million hectares. There are many animals but, because of the park's size, you need luck to see the 'big five' (elephant, lion, leopard, black and white rhino, and cape buffalo). Don't go there just for one day. As you are not allowed outside the camps that are protected against predators during the night, the best time to see animals is early mornings and late afternoons. Of course, you will drive (slowly or you'll be caught for speeding) the whole day and enjoy the park's vastness and serenity. Or you can join a tour with guides who know where the animals are likely to be. You can see animals better from a minibus or a 4x4 vehicle. If you want to sleep inside the park, you have to book earl or join a tour group. If you must see all animals, go to smaller parks or more expensive private game reserves.

2. The Panorama Route, next to the KNP, is one of the most beautiful and popular travel destinations. It leads through the rugged mountain range of the northern Drakensberg (there are two different Drakensberg ranges in South Africa). Here the inland plateau declines abruptly and steeply and opens up fantastic views of the plains of the 'Lowveld' a thousand metres below. The best view, 'God's Window', is most reliable in the dry winter months. At other times the spectacle is often obscured, since the escarpment is a barrier for the clouds coming from the east. Don't miss Blyde River Canyon, 'Bourke's Luck Potholes' and Pilgrim's Rest.

3. Johannesburg and Pretoria. You will probably land at OR Tambo International Airport (previously Johannesburg International, previously Jan Smuts). Taking a safe freeway route N12 you can see the panorama of Johannesburg and visit the 'Gold Reef City' just south of Johannesburg. The entrance fee is expensive. Besides a casino, the Apartheid Museum and a theme park with some very unpleasant rides, there is a historical gold mining section starting with an introductory film "Rich Beginnings" - Our Golden Heritage", some original houses: a mine official's house, a school, etc., a demonstration of gold panning and gold pouring and an underground gold mine tour. In Johannesburg, the gold reef was easy to reach, today it must be mined in some of the deepest mines in the world, south and west of Johannesburg.

The famous black township of Soweto is nearby, so you could go on a guided tour there. Or you can travel due north to the two main sites of the 'Cradle of Humankind' that comprises a strip of a dozen dolomitic limestone caves containing the fossilised remains of ancient forms of animals, plants and most importantly, hominids. The dolomite, in which the caves formed, started out as coral reefs growing in a warm shallow sea about 2.3 billion years ago. In 1936, the Sterkfontein caves produced the first adult Australopithecus. In 1947, the almost complete skull of a 2.7 million years old adult female Australopithecus africanus was found, initially named Plesianthropus transvalensis ("near-man of the Transvaal"), which inspired the nickname 'Mrs Ples'. You can visit the caves and, 10 kilometres further, the Maropeng Visitors Centre with an interesting and very politically correct museum so that you will no longer have any doubts that all present day humans are one species! Outside the centre, they are busy installing a footprint of Václav Klaus.

Pretoria is nicer and safer than Johannesburg. It has Union Buildings (the president's office - not open to visitors but the place and the park below are nice), the 'Paul Kruger House' just east of the historical Church Square, the best natural history museum 'Transvaal Museum', the best ZOO in Africa, Melrose House, Police Museum etc. Go south to the Voortrekker Monument, the shrine of Afrikanerdom, with its fine small museum.

4. Drakensberg: There is some dispute if the highest mountain in the Republic of South Africa is Njesuthi, but there is no doubt that the highest spot is on the border with Lesotho in the spectacular mountain range of Drakensberg, that it is higher than 3400 m, and that the highest mountain in Southern Africa, Thabana-Ntlenyana, which is 3482 m above the sea level, is well inside Lesotho.

5. In Kimberley there is a huge hole in the ground left over after the removal of about three tons of diamonds. Measuring over a kilometre deep, with a surface area of 17 ha, it is the world's largest hand-dug hole - a monument to the lengths (and depths) humans will go in search of wealth. The wild, vibrant and no doubt rather sleazy shanty town that arose around the diggings in the 1870s has been reconstructed into an open air museum. This is the place where South Africa's industrial revolution got under way. It was money from the easily worked Kimberley diamond fields that funded the rather more expensive gold mines of Johannesburg. Mining at the 'Big Hole' ceased in 1914 but there are still a few active mines in the area.

6. Cape Town: Table Mountain, Lion's Head and Signal Hill, the V&A Waterfront with the Aquarium, Cape Point and the Cape of Good Hope, Robben Island with Nelson Mandela's cell, beaches on both sides of the Peninsula, wine farms, penguins, seals, baboons, the unique 'fynbos' vegetation of the Cape Floral Kingdom in Kirstenbosch Gardens, the 'Castle' (a fortress built in 1666), the Malay Quarter and much more. The best day of the year to visit Cape Town is the 2nd January - to see the colourful procession through the town.

7. Western Cape: In spring you can take a tour north from Cape Town to Namaqualand. Between August and October the life-giving rains transform the ordinarily arid landscape into a thick and lush wildflower carpet of every colour. Or travel east to see an excellent old farm museum 'Kleinplasie' in Worcester (also with a Karoo National Botanical Garden and hot spas in Goudini and in Montagu), or the Moravian mission town of Genadendal with a bust of Jan Amos Komenský in the museum, or whales playing very near the coast in Hermanus from June to November. You can continue to the Agulhas lighthouse at the southern-most tip of Africa (there are 45 operational lighthouses in the RSA), the shipwreck museum in Bredasdorp, the fisherman village and a huge cave open into the sea in Arniston (Waenhuiskrans), then to Mossel Bay with a fine replica of Portuguese caravel, Oudtshoorn to see ostriches, crocodiles and caves, South Africa's best small town of Knysna (maybe there are elephants in the forests nearby), and the 'Garden Route'.

8. Beyond the RSA, you can see a lot of sand and some beautiful scenery in Namibia, Victoria Falls in Zimbabwe or Zambia, and Okavango Delta in Botswana.

Tourism and crime